Greek prime minister George Papandreou cancelled the referendum. Angela Merkel and Nicolas Sarkozy called Papandreou back to the “shed” Wednesday for a tongue-lashing…and worse…to set him straight on the marching orders he had been given.
And, the Greek prime minister backed down.
It seems as if Merkel and Sarkozy believe that there are only two choices in the current debate. The first is that the European Union stay together and maintain the single currency zone.
The alternative is that the EU split up with some countries maintaining the single currency zone.
To Merkel and Sarkozy there really is no choice…the EU stays together and supports the euro.
If the EU stays together and supports the euro…then the bailouts will continue.
It seems to me that there are two most likely outcomes to following this path. Of course, there are more but they are all derivatives of these two in my mind.
First, financial markets will continue to reject the solution and there will be further “summits” down the road with more bailouts and more distress. The ultimate result of following this path will be when the EU finally decides that the fiscal policies of all countries in the union will have to be coordinated and there will be fiscal and political union as well as monetary union.
Some have seen this conclusion as the missing component of the efforts to achieve the monetary union right from the start. Others, like myself, have seen this possibility as the ultimate end to the financial crisis as we now know it. And, a political union may have been the goal of some EU “leaders” throughout the turmoil.
If there is going to be a real “coming together” of the nations in the EU, the “strong” will be the drivers (Germany and France and who else?) but in order to achieve the final union the solvency of the laggards (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal and who else?) will have to be resolved. That is, there will have to be some kind of central “Treasury” that will aggregate all debts and pay off those nations still in the union that are insolvent.
One can look at the American after its Revolutionary War where Alexander Hamilton opted for a strong central “Treasury” and the assumption of all of the debts of the states that were then a part of the United States.
The problem with this solution?
The problem lies with the people of the nations within the EU. Some of these people’s may not want to come under the regime of the “strong” nations that will be the driving force in a strong, centralized fiscal EU.
There have been riots and protests in Greece…and in Spain…and in Portugal…and in Italy…indicating resistance to the fiscal austerity being imposed on them by especially Germany and France.
And, the resistance is even getting more personal. For example, a Greek newspaper has a cartoon with a German general manipulating two puppets…the two puppet being the Greek prime minister and another Greek official. The underlying theme: “The Germans didn’t succeed in occupying Greece through arms because the Greek people resisted. They try now to occupy Greece through the economy.”
Pretty heavy stuff.
The Merkel/Sarkozy path to fiscal/political union may be a desirable goal but the question that still needs to be asked is whether or not this goal is consistent with what the people in these countries want. European officials have often been accused of being an “elite” that wishes to impose its will upon the people of Europe. Whether or not the “elites” can pull off this union without too great of a popular upheaval is a question that no one can answer at this moment.
The other alternative is that the financial markets may not allow the “leaders” of Europe to get too much farther along this path.
Just today, 10-year Greek bonds were trading to yield almost 34 percent, almost 3,200 basis points above the yield on 10-Year German bonds. The bonds of the Italian government have been trading at the largest spreads above the German bonds in the euro era. And the same with the bonds of Portugal.
If these governments have to pay these kinds of yields on their debt there is no way that they will be able to get their fiscal budgets under control. If these governments cannot issue bonds or can only issue them to the European Central Bank then the fundamental reality of their insolvency will become more and more of a problem.
Add to this a European recession, where tax revenues take a further nose-dive, and you only exacerbate the problem.
I should add that “Super Mario” Draghi, the new head of the ECB oversaw a reduction in the central bank’s main policy interest rate in his third day in the new job. The reason for this reduction is to combat weaknesses being experienced in European economies.
Over-shadowing all of this is the fear of the European officials of financial “contagion”. The spectre of Lehman Brothers hovers over Europe. The fear is that if these “officials” let Greece go “insolvent” in a “disorderly default” kicking off the use of Credit Default Swaps, that there will be a “spill over” effect moving from the sovereign debt of Italy…and of Spain…and of Portugal. Then, the concern spreads to the commercial banks in Europe…remember the stress tests conducted on these banks did not include a write down of the sovereign debt on their balance sheets.
The problem Europe is facing is a solvency problem. This is what European officials have been trying to deny for the last four years. And, many are still in denial!
Solvency problems do not just go away! Denying they exist only causes the problems to get worse!